ONDC: Democratizing E-commerce and Empowering MSMEs & Startups in India

HomeBusinessONDC: Democratizing E-commerce and Empowering MSMEs & Startups in India


Mr. Sharish Joshi, ONDC, Chief Busienss Officer : CODE, New Delhi 2023

The Indian e-commerce landscape is poised for a transformative shift with the arrival of the Open Network for Digital Commerce (ONDC). This visionary initiative, backed by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), promises to dismantle the walled gardens of dominant platforms and usher in an era of inclusivity and opportunity for all stakeholders, particularly Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) and startups.

Breaking the Monopoly, Building a Fairer Marketplace

Currently, the Indian e-commerce space is characterized by a few large platforms controlling a lion’s share of the market. This skewed landscape presents significant challenges for smaller businesses, making it difficult for them to compete and reach a wider audience. ONDC tackles this head-on by creating an open network, akin to the public internet, where buyers and sellers can connect seamlessly, irrespective of the specific platforms they use.

Imagine a scenario where a customer browsing Flipkart can discover products from a local mom-and-pop store listed on a different platform, say, a hyperlocal delivery app. This is the power of ONDC – a borderless, platform-agnostic marketplace where buyers have the unparalleled choice and sellers gain access to a vast, diverse customer base.

Empowering MSMEs: From Local to Global

For MSMEs, ONDC is a game-changer. No longer will they be confined to the limitations of individual platforms, struggling with hefty fees and opaque algorithms. ONDC empowers them to showcase their products and services on a level playing field, reaching a wider audience without exorbitant costs. They can leverage their existing digital presence, be it their own website or a social media page, to connect with potential customers on the ONDC network.

Imagine a handloom weaver in a remote village, showcasing their exquisite creations on a local social media platform. Through ONDC, their products become visible to a nationwide audience, potentially reaching fashion enthusiasts across the country. This opens doors to unprecedented growth and economic empowerment for millions of such MSMEs across India.

Startups: The Engines of Innovation in the ONDC Ecosystem

The ONDC ecosystem thrives on the spirit of innovation, and startups are at the forefront of this exciting journey. They are actively developing cutting-edge applications and services that leverage the ONDC network, creating a more efficient and user-friendly e-commerce experience.

Think of a startup building a hyperlocal discovery platform that helps buyers find unique products from nearby sellers on the ONDC network. This empowers local businesses and promotes sustainable, community-driven commerce. The possibilities are endless, with startups playing a crucial role in shaping the future of ONDC and the broader e-commerce landscape.

Beyond Transactions: Building Trust and Transparency

ONDC goes beyond simply facilitating transactions. It recognizes the importance of trust and transparency in the digital marketplace. The network is designed to ensure fair play and accountability for all participants. Reputation systems will enable buyers to make informed choices, while robust reconciliation tools will streamline financial settlements for sellers.

Furthermore, ONDC is committed to data privacy and security. Data ownership remains with the users, and businesses do not have unfettered access to customer information. This focus on ethical practices fosters trust and encourages wider participation in the network.

A Collaborative Journey: Government, Industry, and Consumers

The success of ONDC hinges on a collaborative effort from all stakeholders. The government has played a crucial role in initiating and supporting the initiative. Industry players, from large established companies to budding startups, are actively contributing to the network’s development. And most importantly, consumers hold the key to driving adoption and shaping the future of ONDC.

By embracing ONDC and choosing to shop on platforms that integrate with the network, consumers can become active participants in building a more inclusive and equitable e-commerce ecosystem. They can support local businesses, discover unique products, and enjoy a transparent and secure shopping experience.

The Road Ahead: Challenges and Opportunities

The journey towards a fully functional and thriving ONDC ecosystem is not without its challenges. Integrating existing platforms, educating stakeholders, and ensuring seamless user experience require ongoing effort and collaboration. However, the potential benefits far outweigh the challenges.

ONDC has the power to revolutionize the Indian e-commerce landscape, creating a level playing field for businesses, promoting innovation, and empowering millions of consumers. As the network evolves and matures, it has the potential to become a global model for open, inclusive, and sustainable digital commerce.

Unveiling the ONDC Architecture: A Technical Deep Dive

Understanding the technical underpinnings of ONDC is crucial to appreciating its power and potential. The network operates on a distributed architecture, with four key components:


 These can be individuals or businesses seeking to purchase goods and services. They interact with the network through buyer applications, which could be existing e-commerce platforms, social media apps, or even hyperlocal delivery services.


These are individuals or businesses offering goods and services. They connect to the network through seller applications, which could be their own websites, online marketplaces, or specialized inventory management tools.

Logistics Providers: 

These entities handle the physical delivery of goods from sellers to buyers. They integrate with the network through logistics service provider applications, ensuring efficient and seamless order fulfillment.

Discovery Service: 

This central component acts as a directory, enabling buyers to find relevant sellers and products across the network. It facilitates search, product listing, and price comparison, empowering buyers to make informed choices.

The interactions between these components are facilitated by open APIs and standardized protocols. This ensures interoperability and prevents vendor lock-in, fostering a truly open and competitive ecosystem.

Beyond the Basics: Exploring Advanced Features

ONDC is not just about enabling basic transactions. It is designed to be a dynamic and evolving platform, incorporating cutting-edge features to enhance the e-commerce experience for all stakeholders.

Reputation Management: 

ONDC builds trust within the network by implementing a robust reputation system. Buyers can rate and review sellers, creating a feedback loop that incentivizes quality products and services. This empowers buyers to make informed choices and promotes accountability among sellers.

Standardized Packaging: 

ONDC is exploring the concept of standardized packaging solutions. This would streamline logistics processes, reduce costs, and create a more sustainable e-commerce ecosystem. Imagine pre-labeled, tamper-proof packaging readily available for sellers, regardless of their platform or location.

Financial Reconciliation: 

Managing finances can be complex in the e-commerce world. ONDC aims to simplify this process with automated reconciliation tools. These tools will ensure accurate and timely settlements for sellers, reducing administrative burdens and improving cash flow.

Badging and Certifications: 

To enhance trust and transparency, ONDC is exploring the integration of badges and certifications. These could verify the authenticity of products, highlight ethical sourcing practices, or showcase specific quality standards. This empowers buyers to make informed choices based on their values and preferences.

The Global Potential of ONDC: A Model for Inclusive E-commerce

ONDC is not just an Indian initiative; it has the potential to become a global model for open and inclusive e-commerce. Its core principles of interoperability, fair competition, and user empowerment resonate with the growing concerns about platform dominance and data privacy in the digital world.

Several countries are closely monitoring the development of ONDC, recognizing its potential to address the challenges of the current e-commerce landscape. As ONDC matures and demonstrates its success, it could pave the way for a more equitable and sustainable global e-commerce ecosystem.

ONDC: A Glimpse into the Future of E-commerce 

While the core functionalities of ONDC are currently being established, the future holds exciting possibilities for its evolution and expansion. Here’s a peek into what the future of ONDC might hold:

1. Hyperlocal E-commerce Revolution: 

Imagine a scenario where you can order fresh groceries from a local farmer’s market or handcrafted souvenirs from a nearby artisan, all facilitated by the ONDC network. By integrating with hyperlocal delivery services and community-driven platforms, ONDC can empower local businesses and promote sustainable, community-based commerce.

2. Seamless Cross-border Trade:

 The open and interoperable nature of ONDC opens doors for seamless cross-border trade. Indian artisans and MSMEs can connect with international buyers on platforms integrated with the ONDC network, showcasing their unique products to a global audience and boosting export opportunities.

3. Blockchain Integration for Enhanced Trust and Transparency:

 Integrating blockchain technology with ONDC can further enhance trust and transparency within the network. Secure and tamper-proof transaction records, product provenance tracking, and automated smart contracts can streamline processes and build trust among all stakeholders.

4. AI-powered Personalization and Recommendation Engines: 

Artificial intelligence can personalize the shopping experience on the ONDC network. AI-powered recommendation engines can suggest relevant products based on user preferences and purchase history, creating a more engaging and efficient shopping journey.

5. The Rise of Specialized Service Marketplaces: 

ONDC can facilitate the creation of specialized service marketplaces, catering to specific needs and industries. Imagine platforms dedicated to connecting patients with healthcare providers, students with tutors, or businesses with freelance professionals, all operating within the open and transparent framework of ONDC.

The possibilities are endless, and the future of ONDC is brimming with potential. As the network evolves and adapts to new technologies and trends, it has the power to not only transform the Indian e-commerce landscape but also serve as a model for a more inclusive, equitable, and sustainable digital economy worldwide.

Beyond the Hype: Addressing Potential Concerns and Challenges

While ONDC holds immense promise, it’s crucial to acknowledge and address potential concerns and challenges that may arise on its path to success. Here are some key areas to consider:

1. Integration and Onboarding: 

Integrating existing platforms and onboarding new businesses, especially MSMEs with limited technical resources, can be a complex process. ONDC must provide clear guidelines, technical support, and incentives to encourage widespread participation.

2. User Adoption and Awareness: 

Building user awareness and trust in a new platform takes time and effort. ONDC needs effective marketing campaigns and educational initiatives to inform both buyers and sellers about the benefits of the network.

3. Data Privacy and Security: 

Ensuring robust data privacy and security measures is paramount to gain user trust. ONDC must establish clear data governance policies and implement strong security protocols to protect sensitive user information.

4. Logistics and Infrastructure: 

Efficient logistics infrastructure is crucial for a seamless e-commerce experience. ONDC needs to collaborate with existing logistics providers and potentially explore innovative solutions to address challenges in remote areas.

5. Dispute Resolution and Grievance Redressal: 

Establishing a clear and efficient dispute resolution mechanism is essential for building trust and resolving issues between buyers and sellers. ONDC needs to develop a robust grievance redressal system that is fair, transparent, and accessible to all stakeholders.

6. Sustainability and Long-term Vision: 

Building a sustainable ONDC ecosystem requires careful planning and ongoing innovation. Continuous investment in research and development, adaptation to evolving technologies, and fostering a thriving startup ecosystem are crucial for long-term success.

Overcoming these challenges and ensuring the success of ONDC demands a collaborative approach from all stakeholders. Here are some key steps to consider:


Continued support in terms of policy frameworks, funding, and technical assistance is essential.


Active participation from established players and startups is crucial for building a diverse and vibrant ecosystem.

Academia and Research Institutions: 

Collaboration with research institutions can foster innovation and address technical challenges.

Civil Society and Consumer Organizations: 

Advocating for consumer rights and responsible business practices will build trust and transparency.

The Power of Collective Action: Building a Brighter Future for E-commerce

By acknowledging potential challenges, working collaboratively, and staying committed to its core principles, ONDC has the potential to revolutionize the Indian e-commerce landscape. It can empower millions of MSMEs and startups, create a level playing field for businesses, and offer consumers a wider choice, greater transparency, and a more secure shopping experience.

The success of ONDC goes beyond just e-commerce; it represents a broader vision for an inclusive and equitable digital economy. By joining hands and actively participating in this journey, we can create a digital marketplace that empowers everyone and unlocks the true potential of the Indian digital revolution.

Conclusion: ONDC – Ushering in a New Era of E-commerce

ONDC is not just a technological innovation; it represents a transformative shift in the very fabric of e-commerce. By dismantling the walls of closed ecosystems and fostering an open, inclusive, and collaborative network, ONDC has the power to:

Empower MSMEs and Startups:

 Provide millions of small businesses and budding entrepreneurs with a level playing field and access to a wider audience.

Promote Fair Competition:

 Encourage innovation and healthy competition, ultimately benefiting consumers with wider choice and better prices.

Build Trust and Transparency: 

Establish clear guidelines and robust security measures, creating a trustworthy and transparent marketplace for all stakeholders.

Drive Inclusive Growth: 

Foster sustainable, community-based commerce, empowering local businesses and promoting regional economic development.

Shape the Future of E-commerce: 

Serve as a model for a more inclusive, equitable, and sustainable global digital economy.

The journey of ONDC is still in its early stages, but the potential is immense. By acknowledging the challenges, working collaboratively, and staying committed to its core principles, ONDC can unlock a brighter future for e-commerce, one that empowers everyone and benefits society as a whole.

While this blog post delves into the vision and potential of ONDC, words alone cannot translate into real-world change. To truly unlock its transformative power, we must move beyond mere understanding and translate inspiration into concrete action. Here are some tangible steps you can take, depending on your role in the ecosystem:

For Businesses:

Explore Integration Options: 

Actively assess the technical feasibility of integrating your platform or marketplace with the ONDC network. Seek guidance and support from the ONDC team or partner with technology providers specializing in ONDC integration.

Prepare for Onboarding: 

Familiarize yourself with ONDC’s onboarding guidelines and technical specifications. Ensure your business processes and data management systems are compliant with ONDC standards.

Embrace Openness and Collaboration:

 Recognize that your success within the ONDC ecosystem is intertwined with the success of others. Foster partnerships with complementary businesses and participate in collaborative initiatives to enhance the overall network experience.

For Consumers:

Demand ONDC Integration:

 When choosing online platforms for shopping, actively inquire about their ONDC integration status. Voice your preference for platforms that embrace the open network principles.

Spread Awareness: 

Share your positive experiences with ONDC platforms and encourage others to explore the benefits of an open and inclusive e-commerce ecosystem. Organize or participate in awareness campaigns to educate your community about ONDC.

Provide Feedback:

 Actively engage with ONDC platforms and share constructive feedback on your experience. Your insights can help shape the network’s development and ensure it caters to the evolving needs of consumers.

For Developers and Tech Enthusiasts:

Build Innovative Applications: 

Leverage the ONDC APIs and open architecture to develop cutting-edge applications and services that enhance the network’s functionality and user experience. Explore opportunities to address specific needs within the ecosystem, such as hyperlocal delivery solutions or personalized recommendation engines.

Contribute to Open-Source Projects: 

Participate in the development of open-source tools and libraries that support ONDC integration and platform development. Share your expertise and contribute to building a robust and accessible technological foundation for the network.

Join the ONDC Community: 

Actively engage with the ONDC developer community, share your ideas, and collaborate on innovative solutions. Your contribution can play a crucial role in shaping the future of the network’s technological landscape.

For Policymakers and Industry Leaders:

Advocate for Supportive Policies: 

Promote policies that incentivize platform integration, address data privacy concerns, and foster a level playing field within the ONDC ecosystem. Collaborate with regulatory bodies to ensure a transparent and efficient regulatory framework for the network.

Invest in Infrastructure and Capacity Building:

 Allocate resources towards developing the necessary infrastructure, such as robust logistics networks and digital literacy programs, to ensure widespread adoption and participation in ONDC, particularly for MSMEs and rural communities.

Promote Collaboration and Knowledge Sharing: 

Facilitate regular dialogue and knowledge-sharing initiatives between various stakeholders within the ONDC ecosystem. This will foster joint problem-solving and accelerate the network’s overall progress.

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